A lot of time and effort need be put into excavating and preparing a flower garden. It is not required to till the bottom soil as thoroughly as the top soil, but once it has been prepared, it will continue to function well for a great number of years. As a result, it is only necessary to periodically replenish the fertility of the topsoil.
Incorporating some sand or even crushed rock into a thick bottom soil may be necessary. Although it may seem counterintuitive, lime also has the ability to compress sandy soil, making it one of the most effective soil looseners. Apply a liberal amount of it on the base. Incorporate into this area a substantial quantity of partly decomposed leaves, grass clippings, manure, peat moss, or humus. If the soil is sandy, you may amend it by adding clay or a significant quantity of vegetable matter. Do not press it down, but rather let it to settle on its own.
If you have heavy topsoil, you may turn it into excellent loam by mixing in sand and well-decomposed manure, humus, peat moss, or fallen leaves. This will lighten the texture of the topsoil. When establishing new gardens, it is important to apply a substantial quantity of bone meal or superphosphate, limestone, and potentially a general-purpose fertilizer such as 5-10-5. Ashes from a springtime campfire, wood stove, or fireplace are wonderful for use in composting. Just make sure the ashes come from untreated wood since burning does not get rid of the poisons that are in treated wood.
With very few exceptions, perennials generally need to have their roots split every three to four years. The plant’s growth begins from the initial cluster and spreads out in all directions. After some time, the center will starve to death since there is no more food within its grasp. This will result in a ring of living growth around a dead center. Lifting and dividing the strongest parts of this ring necessitates removing and discarding any dead roots and stalks before planting a number of fresh seeds. Be sure to make the holes sufficiently enough so that the roots may spread out. It is not necessary for them to be very deep if the bed has been adequately prepared. In the case of types with deep roots, such as lupine, the holes need to be as deep as the root, and the root should be pulled out carefully so it doesn’t break.
In addition, the border has to be redesigned so that the encroachments of fast-growing plants that are trying to suffocate their less hardy companions can be corrected, and so that errant seedlings that have a tendency to develop in the incorrect area may be removed and replaced. The seedlings may typically be put to good use in the process of regrouping; however, it is preferable to get rid of the seedling phlox since it never runs true to the original hue and usually disappoints.
There are some experts who suggest spring as the best time to cross the border, but there are numerous elements that appear to prefer fall. First, there is the weather, which in typically is mild and bright, making it a comfortable environment to work in. Second, it is just before the end of the season, so any adjustments that are needed are more likely to be fresh in one’s memory. Add to these the freedom from the rush of spring tasks, the greater ease in identifying plant groups and their limits, and the possibility that winter freezing will pulverize the newly turned soil, and it would appear that the weight is largely in favor of September or October as the months to turn the soil. The plants are given the opportunity to establish new root systems during this time period before the onset of the cold weather. Be sure to give them a thorough drenching in the liquid.
It is common knowledge that some perennials transfer more successfully in the spring. Because they have just finished flowering, plants like chrysanthemums do not split well so soon thereafter. These should be moved using as big a clump of soil as feasible, with as little disruption to the roots as is practicable. If dividing them apart is something you want to accomplish, you should do it in the spring, when they are more or less dormant. Perennials that bloom in the spring and early summer should be divided in the autumn, while those that bloom in the late summer should be divided in the spring. Keep in mind that this is a broad rule, and that general rules need to be applied with some degree of flexibility.
Some perennial seeds are sown in the spring, and the plants they produce bloom the same year. Some are planted in the autumn, soon before the first frost, in a protected position beneath foliage that is handy for examination over the winter. It would seem that they cannot germinate without first being frozen. However, the bulk of them thrive best when sowed in the spring.
The reason why certain perennials seem to have changed color is because the parent plant has died from a disease, been neglected to be divided, or received some other kind of treatment, and its place has been replaced by seedlings that are genetically distinct from the parents.
Applying a full plant meal to perennials in the early spring will elicit a response from the plants. It is important to work the fertilizer into the ground while ensuring that it does not come into contact with the plant’s stems. If you plant annuals in well-draining soil, they won’t require any extra food. However, a starting solution of liquid plant food will help them get over the trauma of being transplanted when you put them in their permanent beds.
If you want to stop most weeds from growing and conserve some water at the same time, mulch with a few inches of compost, peat moss, or whatever else you have on hand. In the spring, the mulch may be worked into the soil in a more or less progressive manner. The material must maintain a degree of elasticity sufficient to allow water to penetrate through. Peat moss has a tendency to compact down, therefore other materials make for better mulching.
To create more compact plants, pinch back the crowns. During periods of drought, it is more important to water deeply than often. Put up stakes immediately for tall plants like delphiniums. Raffia should first be secured to the stake, and then to the plant itself. To extend the length of time that the plant is in bloom, take off the spent flowers as soon as they appear. By using this technique, you may coax further blooming from plants such as Canterbury bells. After the delphinium flowers have faded, the stalks should be cut off to allow for the growth of new bloom stalks. If you don’t let pansies and petunias go to seed, the flowers will bloom indefinitely.
Protecting oneself from the winter elements is something that is often misunderstood. It is not a mulch’s job to keep plants warm; rather, it is to keep them cold. The earth will heave and little roots will be broken if there is a sudden shift in temperature. Warm days followed by cold nights do a great deal of harm, and the majority of winter deaths are due to this reason rather than the acute cold.
If we apply a layer of hardwood leaves, which take a long time to decay, over the bed, it lays loose throughout the whole season if it is loosely kept in place by brush or wire. This is because hardwood leaves take a long time to decompose. If, then it must not only be light and airy but also remain dry. When we utilize regular leaves, they quickly condense into a dense, soggy mass that blocks out air, suffocates the plants, and hastens the process of degradation. In the spring, this particular sort of leaf begins to ferment and emit heat, which not only encourages the dormant plants to awaken prematurely but also negates the reason for why it was put over them in the first place.
The leaves may be kept away from the soil by using one method, which is to install an open layer of brush or any other abrasive material. It is recommended that more brush or chicken wire be put on top of the leaves in order to keep them in place. Avoid covering up too soon in advance. First, we should give the mice time to locate a warm place to spend the winter elsewhere. If they decide to make their homes in the mulch, they will spend the winter feeding on the roots and bulbs.
Plants that were originally grown in warmer regions may at times need more protection (tritoma and the like). Make use of baskets or boxes loaded with leaves and arranged in a casual manner.